What is Traumatic Brain Injury?

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) or intracranial injury occurs when an external force or a sudden trauma injures the brain. TBI is a complex injury that is classified based on the severity of trauma, its mechanism, and other factors. TBI causes a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities from temporary dysfunction of brain cells to long-term complications or death. No two TBI cases are alike, and the consequences of two similar brain injuries may vary.

What Causes TBI?

Traumatic Brain Injury or brain trauma occurs following a focal impact upon the head. A sudden acceleration or deceleration within the cranium may lead to brain trauma. For example, TBI may occur when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or is powerfully jolted or shaken, or is pierced by an object tearing the brain tissue.


TBI can be diagnosed by a detailed neurological examination. Various techniques including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), High Definition Fiber Tracking (HDFT), or even X-rays are used to detect head trauma. However, a diagnosis is typically performed based on present symptoms, which may appear right away or may not appear for days or weeks after the injury. Sometimes, the symptoms may go unnoticed easily.

Cognitive skills testing helps better diagnose a TBI and pinpoint the cognitive skills which need to be strengthened. At Neural Space, a professional cognitive skills testing is provided through its BrainRx Cognitive Skills Training program. Our highly time- and cost-effective, and the most comprehensive test available in India; Cognitive Skills TestTM measures all cognitive skills including attention, memory, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, and logic and reasoning.

Symptoms of a TBI

The severity of TBI symptoms is determined by the severity of the injury. The symptoms can be mild, moderate, or severe, and may not always be detectable immediately. Mild TBI or concussion This type of TBI either doesn't cause unconsciousness at all or causes unconsciousness for not more than 30 minutes. Symptoms of a mild TBI usually appear at the time of the injury or soon after, and are often temporary.

Moderate TBI

This type of TBI causes unconsciousness for more than 30 minutes. Symptoms of a moderate TBI are often similar to those of a mild TBI, but they are more serious and last longer.

Severe TBI

This type of TBI causes unconsciousness for more than 24 hours. Symptoms of a severe TBI are significantly more serious and long term.

Symptoms of a TBI

Headache, lightheadedness or dizziness, Blurry vision or tired eyes, confusion and disorientation, Ringing in the ears, Bad taste in the mouth.

Nausea and vomiting trouble speaking coherently, loss of consciousness, memory loss, fatigue or lethargy, convulsions or seizures.

Numbness or poor coordination in limbs agitation or restlessness Change in sleep patterns Mood swings and behavior changes. Trouble with attention, concentration, thinking, or memory.

Statistics of TBI

According to the data of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in the United States each year approximately:
1.7 million people experience a TBI
53,000 people die from TBI-related causes
70,000 people experience permanent damage

As TBI is caused by common events such as falls, car crashes, and sports injuries, anyone can suffer from it; however, the age groups in which TBI is most common include,
Children up to 4 years old
Adolescents between 15 and 19 years old
Adults 65 and older

TBI rates are higher for males than for females within every age group. Disabilities caused by a TBI depend on the location and severity of the injury, as well as the age and health of the patient. The patients who recover from a TBI often suffer from long-term disabilities such as trouble with cognition (attention, memory, reasoning), sensory processing (hearing, sight, touch, smell, and taste), communication (understanding and expressing), mental and behavioural health (anxiety, depression, aggression, social inappropriateness, personality changes, etc.)

Treatments and Therapies

Different treatments are provided based on the severity of a TBI. Initial treatments aim at stabilizing the individual immediately after a TBI. Rehabilitative care center treatments help restore the patient to everyday life. Acute treatments are used to minimise secondary injury and extend life support. Sometimes surgical treatments are required.

Long-term rehabilitation includes physical, occupational, and speech therapy, counselling, and social help. BrainRx Cognitive Skills Training developed by Neural Space has proven to dramatically improve cognitive skills and prominently reduce or eliminate cognition problems with attention, concentration, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, and memory.

Call Neural SpaceTM today and find out how BrainRx Cognitive Skills Training plays a crucial role in a TBI recovery.